Upon being greeted with the following logs, I started investigating the issue.
I found the issue to be caused by the database being closed, and not any major underlying disk issue.
Check if your database has auto_close enabled.
select @@SERVERNAME AS server_name,getutcdate() as report_date_utc,name as database_name, is_auto_close_on , state_desc, user_access_desc
where is_auto_close_on = 1
order by name asc
If autoclose is on, switch this database to no longer use auto_close.
Before making any changes, check the integrity of the database. If there are no errors generated by this command, then move on to changing the auto_close option.
alter database [database_name] set offline with rollback immediate;
alter database [database_name] set online;
alter database [database_name] set AUTO_CLOSE OFF;